Wear A Mask - it's airborne!
If you’re in a country that has not eliminated COVID-19, wear a mask when mixing with other in enclosed spaces.
Any cloth face covering is better than nothing. But, you should seek to get the best mask that you can as soon as you can without depleting the stocks that emergency workers use.
Your cloth face covering:
- needs nose wire which should kept shaped to your nose while in use.
- should be multi-layer - three or more ideally
- should not have gaps at your cheeks, sides, or throat
- should perhaps have a “fitter” added (see below)
- may concentrate virons on the outside - wash your hands after touching a dirty mask and wash/dry the mask after use.
If you’re wearing a surgical-style mask that you bought from the supermarket or a corner store, consider a fitter (see below). The stretchy spandex (lycra) ones that are single layer are really low self-protection.
If you can’t wear a mask or cloth face covering stay at home and get your food/groceries delivered.
If you can afford it, get KF94 masks (that are not cloth or washable) for use when mixing with other in public. Citizen Scientist, Aaron Collins, reviews masks for filtration effectiveness and talks about KF94 masks quite a bit. Leave the N95 and FFP2 masks/respirators for respective medical and emergency workers.
“Fitters” to be placed on top of your surgical-style mask (better masks)
This University of Wisconsin study (Rothamer et al 2020) is key: You must add a “fitter” to your lower quality mask to protect yourself.
Pics of the four masks they tested:
The all-important filtration boost - indicated in chart form:
Aaron Collins talks about fitters on his youtube channel (March 15, 2021).
Double masking (better masks)
- Feb, 2021: Maximizing Fit for Cloth and Surgical-style Masks to Improve Filtration - Brooks et al (CDC)
Key studies & Test on filtration effectiveness of various materials/masks:
- Feb, 2021: Effectiveness of Mask Wearing to Control Community Spread of SARS-CoV-2 - Brooks & Butler
- Dec, 2020: University of Wisconsin “fitter” study (above)
- Nov, 2020: Virginia Tech: Cloth face coverings help protect both wearers and those nearby - Pan, Harb, Leng & Marr.
- Q4 2020 onwards: Aaron Collins with the equipment needed at home tests high-filtration masks he’s acquired for filtration and leakage
- Aug, 2020: Max-Planck Institute (Germany): Aerosol filtration efficiency of household materials for homemade face masks: Influence of material properties, particle size, particle electrical charge, face velocity, and leaks - Drewnick et al.
- May, 2020: University of Chicago and Argonne National Labs (USA): Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks - Konda et al.
- May, 2021: Cheng, Ma2, Witt, Rapp, Wild, Andreae, Pöschl, and Su: Face masks effectively limit the probability of SARS-CoV-2 transmission
Articles & More Information
- January 29, 2021; New York Times & Colorado State Mask Study: How to Choose the Best Cloth Face Mask for You
- January 28, 2021; Buzzfeed: What Is Double-Masking? Here’s How It Can Keep You Safer From The Coronavirus
- January 28, 2021; Salon e-Zine: How high-filtration masks — like the KN95, N95 and KN94 — differ
- January 28, 2021; CBC: Why you might want to start wearing better masks — even outdoors
- January 27, 2021; Slate e-Zine: Do You Really Need Two Masks Now?
- Masks do not create a false sense of security, See Twitter thread by Rob Shirkey
- Active since March; Masks4all.co portal has been pushing the “masks for all” message. And a discussion forum on reddit for the same
- Since March 2020; damerousky.cz: Citizen made portal for making masks, started in the Czech Republic (Europe) and now an international multi-language effort
- DiyMasks.ie - more citizen made mask choices and links
- October 15, 2020; Goddard’s Journal video: second review of mask studies over the years and that they work
- March 25, 2020; Goddard’s Journal video: first review of mask studies over the years and that they work
- Wikipedia Maintains a long page on mask use in the pandemic here
Goddard’s October 2020 video links
Timings from start of video:
- @00:30 Wang et al (2020) https://gh.bmj.com/content/5/5/e002794
- @ 01:42 Chan et al (2020) https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/71/16/2139/5848814
- @ 05:28 Chu et al (2020) https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31142-9/fulltext
- @ 10:07 Leung et al (2020) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0843-2
- @ 12:03 NHK program on airborne transmission https://youtu.be/vBvFkQizTT4
- @ 12:42 Anfinrud et al (2020) https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2007800
- @ 14:02 Fears et al (2020) https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/9/20-1806_article
- @ 14:33 Lednicky et al (2020) https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30739-6/fulltext
- @ 14:55 Bourouiba (2020) https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2763852
- @ 15:05 Verma et al (2020) https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0016018
- @ 16:46 Fischer et al (2020) https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/36/eabd3083
- @ 19:14 N95 mask-valve leakage https://youtu.be/JEy1cF2pMdM (video)
- @ 20:33 Anti-mask misinformation https://youtu.be/hJpS_jajub0 (video)
- @ 20:42 That misinformation debunked by Prof Jimenez https://twitter.com/NuritBaytch/status/1300064418458472453
- @ 20:49 Swiss-cheese protection model https://my.clevelandclinic.org/-/scassets/files/org/employer-solutions/covid-19-returning-to-work-guide.ashx
Goddard’s March 2020 video links
Timings from start of video:
- @ 1:17 Jefferson et al (2011) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21735402 Of the nine case-control studies cited in Goddard's quotation of Jefferson, seven involved healthcare workers and two involved mask wearing by uninfected members of the public, Wu et al (2004) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322931 and Lau et al (2004) @ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15200846
- @ 2:01 Jefferson et al (2008) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18042961
- @ 2:29 MacIntyre (2015) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25858901
- @ 4:09 Hui & Chan (2010) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20674795 and Breban et al (2013) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23831141
- @ 4:21 van Doremalen et al https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2004973 and Ong et al (2020) https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762692
- @ 5:26 Tracht et al (2010) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818714
- @ 6:58 Cui et al (2019) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31499643/.
- @ 8:22 Tracht et al (2012) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307882
- @ 9:55 Aiello et al (2012) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22295066
- @ 10:36 Suess et al (2012) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22280120
- @ 11:04 Cowling et al (2009) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19652172
- @ 11:32 Larson et al (2010) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20297744
- @ 12:03 Simmerman et al (2011) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21651736
- @ 12:57 Aiello et al (2012) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266257
- @ 14:11 MacIntyre (2009) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662657
- @ 15:45 Foo et al (2006) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17026695
- @ 17:19 DIY facemask https://youtu.be/Pb59qBUNg1o (video)
- @ 18:34 DIY facemask https://youtu.be/Bs-E_R5WWsY (video)
Anti Masker groups motivated by politics, hatred of your group/country, bad science, their own bad breath and more, link to things that can (they claim) prove their case. Their bogus talking points:
- “just search for it, I don’t have to give you links to studies”
- “masks starve your oxygen” (they don’t)
- “Country X or state Y doesn’t have masks and they’re better than your country”. Ask them what they think about Taiwan or South Korea who’ve performed amont the best (with masks), and they get all racist or suggest it is faked.
Study ‘MacIntyre et al, 2015’, figures quite a lot as an anti-masker “truth”. Goddard’s Journal went into this study above. Meanwhile, Raina C MacIntyre is disgusted with mis-representation by the anti-masker crowd. She has published more in the last twelve months to further indicate her science that masks work and we should wear them:
- September 29, 2020; Prof Raina MacIntyre in BMJ Opinion: Cloth masks should be washed appropriately everyday.
- December 20, 2020; Prof Raina MacIntyre in the Sydney Morning Herald: “Mandating masks across greater Sydney will make a difference”
- December 17, 2020; Prof Raina MacIntyre in the Sydney Morning Herald: “Until we address airborne transmission, we fail to address masks and ventilation and keep peddling the myth that washing hands and wiping surfaces is enough. We need universal masking in closed public spaces”
- October 12, 2020; Prof Raina MacIntyre in the Sydney Morning Herald: “Mandating masks in public places would reduce the risk of transmission from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic people, protect well people, and enable greater freedom of movement.”
- July 4, 2020, Prof Raina MacIntyre in the Sydney Morning Herald: “Face masks have not been recommended actively, although would likely help control the epidemic in Victoria. There is increasing evidence that spread of SARS-CoV-2 is as much due to the air we breathe as it is to what we touch or who coughs in our face. This, plus asymptomatic infection, is a reason why physical distancing and masks are a good idea.”
- June 27, 2020, Prof Raina MacIntyre in The Lancet: Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection for prevention of COVID-19
- April 21, 2021, The Impact of Universal Mask Use on SARS-COV-2 in Victoria, Australia on the Epidemic Trajectory of COVID-19